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There are nearly 4,000 small and large islands, of which Truong Sa and Hoang Sa are the largest archipelagos while Phu Quoc and Con Dao are the largest islands. Vietnam is also a transport junction from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Vietnam features 3,200km of coastline bordering the East Sea stretching from Mong Cai in the north to Ha Tien in the south with many spectacular beaches.
Diversified with rivers, mountains, plains, highlands and islands, Vietnam is divided into 3 various regions: the northern region consists of the northern plain, formed by the Hong and Thai Binh rivers; the northwest mountainous region with various mountains and highlands runs from northwest to southwest with Phansipan mount, the highest peak in Indochina with 3,143m; and the north east region covered with arrow-shaped limestone mountains, of which the Dong Trieu arrow being submerged into the sea, forms the mountain cliffs of Halong Bay, also called Bai Tu Long. The Center of Vietnam is a narrow region, covered with a mixture of mountains (the Truong Son range), hills, rivers and coastal plains. The southern region features some low hills and mountains near Tay Nguyen (Central Highlands) and the western region of Kien Giang province; the Dong Nai river Delta and the Mekong River Delta (the latter is the largest delta in the whole country).
The Kingdom of Cambodia occupies an area of 181,035 square km and is almost completely hemmed in by its neighbours, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand. Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong River ("the great river”) and Lake Tonle Sap ('”the fresh water river”), one of the world's richest sources of fresh water fish.
In the centre of Cambodia, the region around Lake Tonle Sap (Great Lake), which is a densely populated plain, the heartland of Cambodia, is devoted to wet rice cultivation. Most of the country lies at elevations of less than 100m above sea level. Cambodia's highest peak is Phnom Aoral (1,813m), near Pusat Province in the southwestern part of the country.
Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia bordering China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam; and the thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia in Xieng Khuang Province at 2,817m above sea level, with some plains and plateaus. The Mekong River of 1,754km forms as a western boundary with Thailand whereas the mountains of the Annamite Chain of 2,067km as a eastern border with Vietnam. As its neighbor of Vietnam, Cambodia, the Mekong River valley and its fertile floodplains form the country’s agricultural zones including wet-rice lands and important source of fish as well. The current population of Laos is about 5.6 million. About 68% are ethnic Lao or Lao Loum (lowland), 22% are Lao Theung (upland), 10% are Lao Soung (highland) including the H’mong and the Dao 9%, ethnic Vietnamese and Chinese 1%.
Myanmar is the word which has long been used by its people to describe their homeland while the British called Burma. It is also known as the golden Land for the wealth of Agriculture and minerals. Myanmar with the total area of 676,577 square kilometers is the largest mainland in South East Asia. It shares a total of 5,858 km of international borders with Bangladesh and India on the Northwest, China on the Northeast, Laos on the East and Thailand on the Southeast. It has a total length of 2,832 km of Coastlines. The Country stretches 2,090 km from North to South and 925 Km from East to West at its widest points.